STARTED AT BOOT
Surely you are aware that at boot a good number of services are
started, most of them you will see in the bootmessages.
story is that you do not need all those that are being started, you do
need most of them but you can do some weeding out of the ones you do
not need and are possibly a security risk.
( It can even reduce the time it takes to boot . . however, do not
expect too much here, this will only be a few seconds )
Let me first list a few services you DO need and therefore should NOT
: Advanced Power Management Daemon
atd : daemon for the at
command. Runs "one-off" scheduled operations
outside the cron daemon, as set by the command line.
crond : provides a daemon
to perform scheduled operations without user
daytime : provides the
system's notion of the time of day
echo : displays a line of
: the File Alteration Monitor. This server tracks changes to the
filestystem, passing the information along to the appropriate
keytable : provides the
appropriate keyboard mapping
partmon : monitors the
contents of a partition, preventing writing : 0
byte files when the partition is full
random : random number
syslog : a system-wide
xinetd : the Extended
Internet Services Daemon
I will take as an example, Mandrake and PCLos, because they are very
similar. Most other distros have equivalent tools to shut services down
and stop them from starting at boot. In Slackware it is a bit more
complicated but real Slackers will find a way to get the job done
So, in Drake & PCLos . . . . in the menu under
"Configuration" you will find "Configure your Computer" this brings up
the Master Control Center ( same as MCC in Drake ) and there under
"System" you have "DrakXServices" . . this brings up a GUI with all the
services running ( or not ) and there is an info button at every item .
. also there is a stop-button for every service where you can temporary
stop the service and see if it affects the smooth running of your
system ( on a reboot it will start again if you leave the checkmark . .
the trick is: Note down every change you make ! Only if you are 100%
sure you take away the checkmark !
-- A few services that are running by default in PCLos and that you can
safely disable are:
hpoj ( If you do NOT have a HP printer )
nfs ( to comunicate with other Linux computers on a network )
nfslock ( idem )
portmap ( server stuff )
smb ( if you do not run samba to comunicate with a Windows computer on
the network )
swat ( also samba related, admin tool for samba )
wlan ( wireless lan config/activate etc. )
-- You DO need:
iptables ( for the firewall to work )
That is all for today ! . . Next time we will look at Servers/services.
to give a little hint to you Slackware users: to disable a service from
starting at boot look in the /etc/rc.d/ directory . . they will be
there, as an example, to safely prevent sendmail from starting at boot
( you do not need sendmail to send mail ) and be sure that you can put
it back on if you find that you made a mistake disabling it, do:
mv /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail.OLD
To restore to the previous situation you simply do
mv /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail.OLD /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail
Have FUN securing your system !
-- Apr 14 2004 ( Revised Dec 13 2005 ) --